You Zhi Ziguo Shell yesterday
Shela Saravanan, who specializes in reproductive healthSurrogacybook of.
In the South Asian Institute of Humanology at the University of Heidelberg in Germany, Professor Salavanan's course on reproductive technology ethics and law.From 2009 to 2010, she studied surrogacy in India, Interviewed multiple surrogate mothers, Intended Pares, customers), and surrogacy clinics.
Commercial surrogacy was legal in India.From 2002 to 2015, India was the most popular "surrogacy tourist destination" in the worldBecause at that time, the business surrogacy was legal and the law stipulated loose; ② there were medical equipment, a skilled doctor who could speak English; ③ cheap, ④ a large number of women engaged in surrogacy.
arriveIndia banned commercial surrogacy in 2015At the time, the scale of the surrogacy industry in India was converted to about 2.8 billion yuan per year, and more than 80%of customers came from abroad.
India was the most popular "surrogacy tourist destination" | Mansi Thapliyal, Reuters
Sarawanan research is,What exactly does the surrogacy industry in India look like during the legalization days?
Choose the standard of surrogate mothers -poverty and obedience
In the study of Sarawanan,No surrogate mother has more than high school educationThis makes them income meager and it is difficult to negotiate for bargaining.
The surrogate clinic often finds women who are already selling eggs or participating in paid drug tests. These people are poor enough and are used to selling part of their bodies.
However, even so, those candidates who look more firm and more opinionated will still be eliminated.
Everything of surrogate mothers will be priced——The appearance of her appearance, surname, religious belief, deep complexion, previous salary, breast milk condition, how the gender condition of a few children and children has been given before ... Generally speaking, the surrogate mother of the high -skinned white skin canRequires higher compensation.The price of the first surrogacy is low, and the price will rise slightly after the second time because of the cooperation.
During the surrogacy,
Personal freedom, health rights, etc. will be violated
Many surrogate clinics requirementsSurrogate mothers have been staying in the designated collective dormitoryFrom embryonic transplantation to children to customers, about a year.The reason is that ① The surrogate mother continues to have a relationship with her partner, which may transmit the disease to the fetus, or the child who is pregnant with a partner;
But this requirement meansSurrogate mothers must stay away from their families and children within a year.Essence
The environment of the collective dormitory is similar to the youth hostel. A room is full of beds, no entertainment, no TV computer newspaper radio, and there is no place where the dining table is placed.Some researchers commented that "even if there are gardens in prison, the collective dormitory of these surrogacy is not even room for walking in the room."
Surrogacy mothers areIn the first three months, he was asked to bed in bed, To reduce the risk of abortion.The food is average, but the weight is large.In the end, the child will be "checked" according to the weight of birth, so the surrogate motherAsk as much as possible to eat as much as possible, and no exercise is not allowed(To avoid miscarriage) —ly, although this will increase their risks during pregnancy and childbirth.
Surrogate mother lives in a collective dormitory.
The success rate of surrogacy is not high. Some studies have shown that the live production rate is 15.8%, which meansSurrogate mothers often experience several pains to give birth to children and get paidEssence
childbirthForced caesarean sectionIt is not allowed to give birth.Because the risk of the fetus is the smallest.
In addition, the law stipulates up to 3 embryos, but in order to save costs and increase the success rate,The clinic often puts 5 embryos for the surrogate motherThis leads to 3 or more, so that you need to do itTire reduction surgeryEssence
After the legalization of commercial surrogacy,
The clinic agency is
In India, surrogate mothers can only get 15 ~ 25% of the total remunerationEssenceEven in the United States, surrogate mothers only get 35%of total compensation.
There was a surrogate mother who had a surrogate house to build a house at home. The customer was very grateful after the child was born, and knew that the surrogacy fee was not enough to build the house. He wanted to give the surrogate mother money and stop the clinic.The clinic tells customers that the surrogate mothers are potential extortionians. Giving money will grow the greed of the other party. In addition, giving more money will make other surrogate mothers "greedy" and "spoiled".
Actually,The purpose of the clinic is to make that surrogate mother a few more surrogacy several timesCreate more profits for the clinic.
Indian surrogate mother
Can't protect yourself with the law
Many foreign customers are at the end of"Low cost" and "low human rights advantage"Come.In developed countries that allow surrogacy, such as Britain and the United States, surrogate mothers have insurance, unemployment compensation, and psychological support. You can choose to contact your child. If you regret that you want to retain your child's monitoring, you can have a great opportunity to succeed.
In India, surrogate mothers have almost no right to surrogate and children.They need to sign the contract in advance and give up all their rights to their children. They need to give up their own medical decision -making power (the default hidden rules areIf there is an accident, give priority to the treatment of the fetus, Not the surrogate mother is preferred), there is no money for abortion (even if the abortion caused by the embryo is too much), the child you born can not get the money or only get a small part of a small partMoney, and can't get a copy of the contract.
Not only that, during the entire surrogacy process, clinical records, medical bills, birth certificates ... Almost all registered in the name of pseudo -name or customer.The name of the surrogate mother only appears in the surrogacy contract she can't get a copy.
If there is a dispute,No contract, lack of evidenceIt is difficult for surrogacy mothers to file a legal lawsuit.Even if you want to litigation,Financial resources and family are likely not to support herBesides, she is basically impossible to win.
Is the surrogate mother just for money?
No, they will feel emotional to children of surrogacy, which may cause emotional trauma to them.
After giving birth to a child, if the surrogate mother has the opportunity to continue taking care of the child for a while, most of them will sing, soothe, breastfeed, name, and take pictures.
Surrogate mothers want to keep in touch with their children, understand the situation of the child, and look at the children's photos.
But the reality is that most of the surrogate mothers can no longer contact customers and children, and sometimes customers are even anonymous to surrogate.
Many surrogate mothers are frustrated and painful because they cannot contact their childrenEssenceA surrogate mother has retained the old mobile phone number for 7 years, hoping that customers can call her to tell her the child's recent situation.
She has never received a call.
They will have feelings for children of surrogacy,
This may cause emotional trauma to them
There are still huge illegal black markets
Taking prostitution as an example, prostitution is legal in India, butIllegal transactions are still increasing—— Many women and children who are sold by the population are forced to prostitution.The number of women and children in India increased year by year, such as increased by 25%over the previous year in 2016.Even in developed countries like the Netherlands and Germany, after the legalization of prostitution, research shows that the size of the illegal market is still 4-5 times that of the legal market.
Another point of view is, "It is difficult for a country to be so big in India to completely prohibit surrogacy. The issuance of a ban will promote surrogacy to the ground."
The response of Sarawanan is, "This is like saying that because we can't stop all violence against Indian women, we should not be ordered to be criminal."
Cases of death caused by some surrogacy or egg retrieval
In 2009, Easwari, a 23 -year -old surrogate mother, died of great bleeding from postpartum.Her husband saw surrogacy advertisements in local newspapers, so she asked her to go to surrogacy.
In 2012, the 30 -year -old surrogate mother Premila Vaghela twitched and stopped her heart during pregnancy. The baby survived after emergency cesarean section, she did not.Her family got compensation (about 100,000 yuan) from 1 million rupees.
In 2010, 17 -year -old Sushma Pandey died after the egg retrieval. She could earn $ 448 by selling eggs and earned money to help her family.
In 2014, the 23 -year -old Yuma Sherpa died of an ovarian excessive stimulus syndrome caused by egg retrieval.
In addition to these death cases, there are many cases of dying cases, causing health problems or psychological problems.
Eggs, childbirth, etc. can cause death | Stephanie sinclair, is the VII Network surrogacy free choice?
When a person is poverty to a decent life, the behavior of TA being driven by economy is not a real free choice.
Many Indian women lack enough food, energy, housing, drinking water, sanitary facilities, medical care, education and social security ... They are forced to choose a "relatively bad" in poverty and surrogacy.
When a person's basic rights cannot be guaranteed, TA's "voluntary" is not a real free choice.
Among the rural women in India, less than half (44.4%) can make medical decisions for themselves.Many Indian women do not have the right to educate, and do not decide when they will marry and who will marry.Indian women have been taught since childhood, and family demand is higher than their personal needs.
In the study, when the first surrogacy, the clinic will focus on persuading the husband's surrogacy to be "chastity".Once the husband accepts this, he will not oppose his wife's surrogacy.No husband opposes his wife's secondary surrogacy.Family often sets a "money -making goal" for surrogacy mothers to stop surrogacy when this goal is achievedEssenceEven a woman's husband did not work to force her to surrogate multiple times.She was pregnant three times and couldn't stand it. She told her husband that she couldn't do it anymore, and then her husband continued to sell vegetables.And her three surrogacy money was used to build a house at home.
Is their "voluntary surrogacy" really choose freely?The surrogate mother interviewed in Sarawanan, some family members are seriously ill,
Some children with severe disability,
Some husbands need to cure heart disease,
Some husbands have dropped most of their income to buy wine.
Some want to save money for children's education,
Some want money to buy or build their own small house, because most of the income is spent on the rent.
The money that can be obtained at a time at a time is almost 200,000 to 30,000 yuan, which is equivalent to the net income of their five -year -old work -when they work, their income is basically spent on daily expenses, and they cannot deposit money.Surrogacy is to "finally save some money and change a little life"Essence
When a person needs to sell flesh and blood to support the family from getting rid of poverty, it should be rescued, instead of helping them sell flesh more easily.
Each surrogate mother interviewed by Sarawanan said: ① If it is not because of the poor poverty, if you have a better choice, you will definitely not be a surrogate;
② I hope that my daughter can receive sufficient education, and there is no need to be surrogate in the future.
Saruanan (middle) and she interviewed surrogacy mother | Shela Saravanan even if it is not a commercial surrogacy, even if it is a surrogate
There are also structural inequality
Those "voluntary" women who are surrogated by relatives and friends are often those who have poor economy or rely on relatives and friends.resultSimilar to rewarding houseworkEssence
And in Li's surrogacy, it will also existInterest exchangeEssenceEarlier studies in the UK show that altruistic pregnancy often has multiple large transfer names under the name of "medical expenses".
The reason why surrogacy is rationalized is that the current society believes that no offspring is disability and shame.No descendants will feel social shame, psychological damage, and a sense of disability for a long time.Such pain does exist, and it seems to give a "rationality" for surrogacy.
However,The surrogacy itself is actually the most poor group of women who experience greater pain and violate their physical and mental and rights.EssenceSurrogacy provides one more fertility option for the rich, but at the cost of the health, freedom and even life of poor women.